Pulmonary barotrauma (PBT ) of ascent is the most serious of the barotraumas, and causes concern in all types of diving operations. It is the clinical manifestation of Boyle's law as it affects the lungs and is the result of overdistension and rupture of the lungs by expanding gases during ascent.
Ear barotrauma is defined as the tissue damage caused by expansion or contraction of enclosed gas spaces, due to pressure changes (pressure in ears). It is a direct effect of these changes causing tissue distortion.
Almost sixty years ago sinus barotrauma from aviation exposure was well described by Campbell.
This has been called aerodontalgia when applied to altitude exposure. Gas spaces may exist in the roots of infected teeth, along dying nerves, in necrotic areas of the pulp, and alongside or associated with fillings which have undergone secondary erosion (it is one of the main Dental Barotrauma Causes).